力量について

厚生労働省が発出している規制要件では、要員の「教育訓練」を求めている。
ここで注意が必要なのは、「教育」と「訓練」は異なるということである。
英語では教育は「Education」であり、訓練は「Training」である。
自動車免許の取得を考えてみよう。教習所において学科教習を受けるが、これが「教育」に相当する。しかしながら学科教習のみでは、自動車の運転は不可能である。
次に大切なことは路上教習であるが、これが「訓練」に相当する。訓練では、上長や先輩社員が実際の業務をやってみせて、やらせてみるといったことを実施する。OJT(On the Job Training)とも呼ばれる。

筆者が多く監査をする中で発見する事項として、「教育」の記録はあるが、「訓練」の記録がほとんど作成されていないということである。

さらに、各要員の力量表(スキルマップ)を作成してくことが必要である。力量表の目的は、各企業においてどのような力量を持った者がどの部門に配置されているか、また将来のトレーニングニーズを把握するために重要である。

ところで「力量」とは「スキル」のことであると誤解していることが多い。
ISO-19011によれば、力量の定義は以下のとおりである。

3.14 力量(competence)
 意図した結果を達成するために知識及び技能を適用する能力。

すなわち「知識」も持っているだけではダメで、「技能」も持っていなければならない。さらに「知識」と「技能」を駆使して「意図した結果を達成」しなければならないのである。
単なる物知りでは力量があるとは言えない。

力量表では、各部門で要求される力量を複数列記し、各項目に対して以下のように5段階で評価することが多い。

レベル1:完全に理解し指導する能力がある
レベル2:一人で担当する能力がある
レベル3:助手として担当する能力がある
レベル4:指導されて担当する能力がある
レベル5:担当していない

必ずしも、すべての要員が全ての項目に対してレベル5を目指す必要はない。部門の中でスキルセットを集めればよい訳である。

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